Health Benefits of

rosemary

Rosemary, also known as Salvia rosmarinus, is a fragrant shrub that originated from the Asian and Mediterranean regions. This herb is not only famous in the culinary and fragrance world but also has heaps of benefits for health. Rosemary belongs to the Lamiaceae or mint family of plants. [1] The health benefits of rosemary are listed below. 

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Rosemary For Musculoskeletal Pain

People undergoing hemodialysis for chronic kidney disease also suffer from a myriad of different disorders including arthritis, diabetes mellitus, and cardiac disorders. These conditions lead to musculoskeletal pain which is more common in the leg region. Keshavarzian et al. studied the analgesic effects of topical rosemary in hemodialysis patients suffering from musculoskeletal pain. 1,8-cineol of the rosemary suppresses the formation of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes. Rosemary also improves blood flow towards the muscles and has a soothing effect. [2

Antioxidant Activity of Rosemary

Rosemary is rich in polyphenolic compounds that include carnosol, carnosic acid, carnosic acid, and diterpene diphenol. These chemicals have antioxidant properties that enable rosemary to destroy and chelate free radicals. The phenolic compounds also suppress lipid peroxidation in microsomes and liposomes. [3]

Antibacterial Activity of Rosemary

Polyphenolic compounds of rosemary also exhibit antibacterial properties. These compounds hinder the cellular metabolism, genetic machinery, and membranal integrity of the bacterial cell. Disruption of the bacterial membrane causes cell lysis and destruction. The most potent compound of rosemary with antibacterial activity is carnosic acid. [3]

Rosemary and Wound Healing

Infected wounds are a common complication of tissue injury. Compounds such as flavonoids and terpenes present in rosemary are essential for promoting wound healing and protecting these wounds from microbial infections. These compounds inhibit the production and release of inflammatory mediators that in turn reduce edema, bacterial count, and increase the collagen deposition of fibroblasts and reepithelization of the wound. [4]

Rosemary for Hair Conditions

Hair loss is a common problem among middle-aged men and women. Rosemary treats androgenetic alopecia by inhibiting 5 alpha-reductase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. The main chemicals of rosemary that enhance hair growth and treat hair loss include rosmarinic acid and ursolic acid. [5]

Rosemary For Osteogenesis Imperfecta Of Skin

Osteogenesis imperfecta is characterized by abnormal collagen deposition by fibroblasts of the skin. Collagen is important for skin health, integrity, and elasticity. Essential compounds in the rosemary extract are known to heal the defect in collagen and fibroblasts, mainly targeting collagen type I. [6]

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Figure 2 The figure demonstrates the effects of rosmarinic acid (RA) on the viability of fibroblasts in (A) normal individuals and (B) suffering from osteogenesis imperfecta https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8308967/ 

References

  1. de Macedo LM, Santos ÉMD, Militão L, Tundisi LL, Ataide JA, Souto EB, Mazzola PG. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L., syn Salvia rosmarinus Spenn.) and Its Topical Applications: A Review. Plants (Basel). 2020 May 21;9(5):651. doi: 10.3390/plants9050651. PMID: 32455585; PMCID: PMC7284349.

  2. Keshavarzian S, Shahgholian N. Comparison of the Effect of Topical Application of Rosemary and Menthol for Musculoskeletal Pain in Hemodialysis Patients. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2017 Nov-Dec;22(6):436-441. doi: 10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_163_16. PMID: 29184581; PMCID: PMC5684790.

  3. Nieto G, Ros G, Castillo J. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, L.): A Review. Medicines (Basel). 2018 Sep 4;5(3):98. doi: 10.3390/medicines5030098. PMID: 30181448; PMCID: PMC6165352.

  4. Khezri K, Farahpour MR, Mounesi Rad S. Accelerated infected wound healing by topical application of encapsulated Rosemary essential oil into nanostructured lipid carriers. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2019 Dec;47(1):980-988. doi: 10.1080/21691401.2019.1582539. PMID: 30857435.

  5. Murata K, Noguchi K, Kondo M, Onishi M, Watanabe N, Okamura K, Matsuda H. Promotion of hair growth by Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract. Phytother Res. 2013 Feb;27(2):212-7. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4712. Epub 2012 Apr 20. PMID: 22517595.

  6. Sutkowska J, Hupert N, Gawron K, Strawa JW, Tomczyk M, Forlino A, Galicka A. The Stimulating Effect of Rosmarinic Acid and Extracts from Rosemary and Lemon Balm on Collagen Type I Biosynthesis in Osteogenesis Imperfecta Type I Skin Fibroblasts. Pharmaceutics. 2021 Jun 23;13(7):938. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics13070938. PMID: 34201872; PMCID: PMC8308967.